Luxembourg ranked as Europe's 2023 energy efficiency champion: eceee and ODYSSEE-MURE European Energy Efficiency Scoreboard

(eceee news, 9 Feb 2024) In the 2023 scoreboard, Luxembourg emerged from the comparison as the total winner, followed by Germany, France, Latvia, and Denmark in the overall ranking. The scoreboard has no country that is best in all sectors, or in all components of a given sector. For instance, the overall winner in the industry sector is Estonia, due to the strongest evolution in energy efficiency in industry over the past decade.

“This is a clear message to all countries that there is room for improvement in virtually every sector. It is also worth noting that the 2021 winners are not the winners this year. No one can rest and rely on past performance” says Prof Wolfgang Eichhammer of Utrecht University, Fraunhofer ISI and IEECP who presented the eceee & ODYSSEE-MURE scoreboard at the Leonardo Energy Efficiency Academy.

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The Energy Efficiency Academy is a cooperation between eceee, ODYSSEE-MURE and Leonardo Energy and aims at presenting various aspects of the EU Energy Efficiency Directive through a series of webinars.

The 2023 edition of the eceee and ODYSSEE-MURE European Energy Efficiency Scoreboard includes the latest energy efficiency data and policy impacts. It assesses the energy efficiency performance of EU countries across four sectors: households, transport, industry, and services. It evaluates a country's energy efficiency performance in relation to its European counterparts, relying on the ODYSSEE database for energy efficiency indicators and the MURE database for energy efficiency policies.

The scores are based on three main components for each country: the energy efficiency level reached, the energy efficiency progress (or trend), and the impacts of energy efficiency policies. The first components of the index (the level achieved) reflects the present, the second component (the trend over the past decade) reflects past achievements, whereas the policy component reflects a promise for the future (to 2030).

View factbox on scoring methodology here.

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Key take aways

  • Trends since 2010 favour Eastern and Southern Member States, given their less favourable starting positions (levels) but ambitious energy efficiency policies over the last decade. Scores in the middle of the scoreboard are sometimes closely aligned, making it challenging to distinguish ranks. Nevertheless, the scoreboard clearly highlights weaker areas in a country's efforts.
  • In the household sector, unit consumption per m² for space heating, scaled to the EU average climate, has remained largely unchanged within the EU and in many Member States despite the introduction energy performance standards, or tightening of already existing standards.
  • In the transport sector, car consumption (litres/100 km) has slightly decreased over the past 20 years. Car size greatly influences consumption, with variations between countries (e.g., Italy or France having smaller cars than Germany or Poland; consumption per 100 km decreased in Greece after the economic crisis).
  • Luxembourg leads as Europe's 2023 energy efficiency champion with the best overall score, followed by Germany, France, Latvia, and Denmark. However, it is crucial to delve into different sectors and the three components (level, trend, policies) in each sector. Although Germany performs well in policy scores, these are pledges for the future and need to be realized.
  • No country excels in all sectors and components, making it very clear that all countries have room for improvement.

What is the scoreboard?

  • It is a benchmarking tool to compare the impacts of energy efficiency policies and developments amongst European countries. It is intended to paint a well-rounded picture of how a country is performing with respect to energy efficiency, relative to its peers in Europe.
  • It is the first energy efficiency scoreboard to account for quantitative impacts of policies (output-based scoring). It thus looks at howpolicies are implemented.
  • It accounts for several decades of statistical data as well as future impacts of energy efficiency programmes.
  • This scoreboard aids in pinpointing areas where efforts should be intensified. The scores are determined by three components:
    • LEVEL: A quantitative measure of a country's current performance across major sectors.
    • TREND: A dynamic parameter considering past development and past actions.
    • POLICY: Relies on ex-ante assessment (i.e. effectively a forecast) of energy-saving expected for 2030, stemming from recent policies from a given starting year onwards, converting them into a quantitative score.
  • All three components are equally weighted. Policy scores project expected savings by 2030, reflecting commitments for the future. Achieved policy impacts are incorporated into present levels and trends from 2010 to 2021.

The scoreboard is available online and can be viewed by selecting a criterion which ranks the country according to its score in the “Overview” .The score by country for each criterion can be displayed by selecting “View by country”.

For each criterion each country is scored with a score between 0 and 1 on the basis of indicators and policies, see methodology  

In the 2023 update there were some significant changes: policy scores are now based on the reference year 2010 instead of 2000, and the target year for policies is 2030 instead of 2020, as in the previous scoreboards. Trends are considered for the period since 2010 instead of 2000 in the previous scoreboard. These changes were introduced to put the 2030 target frame in the center of the scoreboard, while relying on the most recent efforts to improve energy efficiency

Access the database online here

About the Energy Efficiency Directive and the Energy Efficiency First Principle

  • The updated Energy Efficiency Directive (EU/2023/1791), released in the Official Journal on September 20, 2023, significantly raises the EU’s ambition on energy efficiency in response to climate change and supply security concerns.
  • It establishes ‘energy efficiency first’ as a fundamental principle of EU energy policy, giving it legal-standing for the first time (Article 3).
  • The 2023 revised directive makes it binding for EU countries to collectively ensure an additional 11.7%reduction in energy consumption by 2030, compared to the 2020 reference scenario projections.
  • EU energy consumption by 2030 should not exceed 992.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) for primary energy and 763 Mtoe for final energy.
  • The revised directive more than doubles the annual energy savings obligation (Article 8) by 2028.
  • EU countries are required to achieve cumulative end-use energy savings for the entire obligation period (running from 2021 to 2030), equivalent to new annual savings of at least 0.8% of final energy consumption in 2021-2023, at least 1.3% in 2024-2025, 1.5% in 2026-2027 and 1.9% in 2028-2030.
  • Energy security issues (as well as gas and electricity prices) have (re)awakened interest in energy efficiency.


Leonardo Energy web page on The 2023 European Energy Efficiency Scoreboard presentation:  (As well as other webinars in the academy series)

Summary of countries in scoreboard on the ODYSSEE-MURE web site:

eceee factbox on the 2023 European Energy Efficiency Scoreboard