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Decarbonisation of drying and cooking processes: application to 3 industrial cases

Panel: 1. Processes and technologies to meet future challenges

Authors:
Léo PASQUIER, ALLICE, France
Lucille Payet, ALLICE, France
Eliéta Carlu, ALLICE, France
Christophe Debard, ALLICE, France

Abstract

1) ABSTRACT - OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY

Our study focuses on the decarbonisation of drying and cooking processes to determine the best option for industrial application cases, aiming to represent the diversity of processes in the industry with different sectors, temperatures and power requirements. These industrial case studies have been designed with the help of industrial actors dedicated to the sector:

– Roof tile drying (90°C – 1,5MW) and cooking (1000°C – 6MW), a plant submitted to the EU-ETS and designed in collaboration with the CTMNC, the French competence centre for natural building materials.

– Powder paint line drying (120°C – 245kW) and cooking (220°C – 450kW), designed in collaboration with the CETIM, French competence centre of mechanical industries.

– Barley malt kilning (60/85°C – 1/2,5MW), designed in collaboration with Malteurop, industrial malt producer.

Each of these cases examines energy efficiency, excess heat recovery, electrification and decarbonised energy solutions (including solar thermal, district heating, hydrogen, biomass.

The aim of the study is to examine the application of these different decarbonisation solutions in the application cases and to compare the results up to 2050 from an energy, economic and environmental perspective). The economic and carbon impacts are based on EnerData’s electricity and gas projections, supplemented by our expertise from previous studies (ADEME, ALLICE, Blunomy, CETIAT). EnerData is a company specialising in the analysis and modelling of global energy issues. It produces data forecasting models taking into account political, economic and environmental aspects. Three scenarios were developed and used in the study, corresponding to different levels of environmental commitment, reflected in targets for limiting the increase in global average temperature by 2050:

– Grey: Rise above 3°C

Very little effort is made to combat global warming, with fossil fuels continue to be used, little effort is made to improve energy efficiency and energy consumption continues to rise.

– Blue: Rise between 2°C and 2.5°C

Stronger environmental commitments, in line with current policies and work on energy needs, particularly in OECD countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).

– Green: Stay below 2°C

Reflects a strong commitment to the environment, in line with the Paris Agreement, and even more so, a strong focus on energy efficiency and renewables.

2) ABSTRACT – RESULTS

In all cases, a significant net reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved by applying energy efficiency solutions – more than 30%. Electrification and renewable energy make it possible to go even further, achieving between 78% and 96% reductions in GHG emissions.

These reductions in GHG emissions are most often associated with a reduction in the total cost of the installation, in particular by reducing the operating costs associated with energy consumption. Only case 1 (tiles) differs from the other cases, mainly due to the lower cost of gas (due to the EU ETS quotas), which makes renewable solutions less competitive.

Apart from the economic aspect, there are two main ways to differentiate one renewable energy source from another for a given process:

– The technical feasibility of the solution, including the availability of renewable energy for a given site.

– The temperature levels involved have a major impact on the efficiency of the systems and therefore on the amount of GHG emitted per unit of heat used.

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